November 23rd, 2014
Paramiko is a Python implementation of SSH with a whole range of supported features. To start, let’s look at the most simple example – connecting to a remote SSH server and gathering the output of ls /tmp/
ssh = paramiko.SSHClient()
ssh.connect('localhost', username='testuser', password='t3st@#test123')
print "Connection Failed"
stdin,stdout,stderr = ssh.exec_command("ls /etc/")
for line in stdout.readlines():
After importing paramiko, we create a new variable ‘ssh’ to hold our SSHClient. ssh.set_missing_host_key_policy automatically adds our server’s host key without prompting. For security, this is not a good idea in production, and host keys should be added manually. Should a host key change unexpectedly, it could indicate that the connection has been compromised and is being diverted elsewhere.
Next, we create 3 variables, stdin, stdout and stderr allowing us to access the respective streams when calling ls /etc/
Finally, for each “\n” terminated line on stdout, we print the line, stripping the trailing “\n” (as print adds one). Finally we close the SSH connection.
Let’s look at another example, where we communicate with stdin.
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November 6th, 2009
Sed – stream editor is a powerful tool to manipulate strings. It will take STDIN as well as operating on a file:
The most common usage is to replace text: echo “this is a test string” | sed s/i/z/g will replace every instance of ‘i’ with a ‘z’: thzs zs a test strzng
You can delete a particular word with say echo “this is a test string”| sed s/test//g leaving: this is a string
You can operate on a file with:
echo “this is a test string” >> file; sed -e s/test//g file Leaving: this is a string
You can also use regular expressions with sed.
March 7th, 2009
We have three relevant streams when dealing with passing data around on the command line. STDIN (0), STDOUT (1) and STDERR (2)
echo “hello” will return “hello” to STDOUT
echo “hello” | sed s/llo/y/g
echo “hello” will print “hello” to STDOUT which we pipe to sed’s STDIN. The shell will fork both processes, echo and sed, and create a pipe between one’s STDOUT to the other’s STDIN. A ‘broken pipe’ will occur when one terminates unexpectedly.
strace echo “hello” will print the system calls that the command makes. Lets say I just want to print out open() calls.
strace echo “hello” | grep open does not work. It seems that the grep is ignored.
This is because strace sends it’s output to STDERR and not STDOUT. In this case we must redirect STDERR to STDOUT so grep can pick it up on it’s STDIN.
strace echo “hello” 2>&1 | grep open will work successfully.
What if we want to redirect STDOUT and STDERR to a file? We simply redirect STDOUT to a file and then redirect STDERR to STDOUT.
strace echo “hello” >/tmp/strace.output 2>&1
A nonstandard method of achieving the same by redirecting everything in one go is strace echo “hello” &>/tmp/strace.output however this is not guaranteed to work across all implementations.
* Post edited thanks to observations from Adam Bolte (16/11/09)
March 3rd, 2009
bc is a great command line calculator for Linux. Under Debian based distributions just:
apt-get install bc
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