DNS Black List / RBL Checking in Python

Following on from performing basic DNS Lookups in Python, it’s relatively trivial to begin testing DNS Block Lists/Real Time Black Lists for blocked mail server IP addresses. To assist in preventing spam, a number of public and private RBLs are available. These track the IP addresses of mail servers that are known to produce spam, thus allowing recipient mail servers to deny delivery from known spammers. RBLs operate over DNS. In order to test a RBL, a DNS query is made. As an example, is a popular RBL. If I wanted to test IP address against the blocklist, I would reverse the octets in the IP address and then append ‘’, i.e. I then perform an ‘A’ record lookup on said host: root@w:~/tmp# host -t a Host not found: 3(NXDOMAIN) Excellent. IP was not found in NXDOMAIN is returned. Now, to take a known spammer’s IP: […]

By | November 22nd, 2014|Python|2 Comments

Linux virtualization, vmware, xen, hosting, and squeezing the most out of your resources

I’d guess that 90% of hosting providers ‘oversell’. This essentially means that should they have 1,000GB allocated, they might offer 15 packages of 100Gb to 15 of their customers, banking on the fact that no one will fully use their 100GB allocation – Selling 5 Virtual Machines with 256MB RAM on a 1GB host, assuming that no one will use their full RAM allocation. This is bad, because you’ll generally be able to confirm that you’ve been allocated the resources, but nonetheless benchmark tests will show that you’re just not getting them, and your environment will be sluggish and unresponsive. This is the same as airlines selling 110 seats on a 100 seat plane. When that 101st paying customer does show up to claim his seat, he’s stuck without a flight. The general consensus is that a VPS is a cheaper and lower-grade option than a dedicated service, however VPSs have a number of indisputable advantages over dedicated servers and I’m going to discuss why almost all the dedicated machines I manage are hosts for a range of VPSs. […]

By | September 14th, 2008|Hardware, Internetworking & Routing, Linux, Technology|1 Comment